A Grammar of Vabungula
|Part 6 - Numbers|
Two Numbering Systems
Vabungula has two numbering systems: a native Vabungula system, and a borrowed system. While both systems are in use, the borrowed system has largely supplanted the native system. The borrowed system comes from a language called Lorêm. Vabungula words that have number roots nearly always use the native system, very rarely the borrowed Lorêm system. Note that the use of the native "ono" (1) is often preferred to the Lorêm equivalent "sêna", especially when used colloquially, or when enumerating nouns. (This also often applies to the native "dono" (2) and its Lorêm equivalent "bêlê").
The Native System
The native Vabungula numbering system, although simple, is rather crude and cumbersome. Although it has words for "hundred" and "thousand", its use is mainly restricted to relatively small numbers. Native Vabungula numbers are also used in building roots.
hono eight horota spider dono two donûn half slono seven slorêmlar week
The native Vabungula numbers from 1 through 10 are as follows:
ono one dono two tono three kono four kwono five sono six slono seven hono eight nono nine drono ten
Numbers between 10 and 100 are formed by combining the word for ten (drono) as follows:
dronoiono eleven ("ten and one") dronoidono twelve ("ten and two") dronoitono thirteen ("ten and three") donodrono twenty ("two ten") donodronoiono twenty-one ("two ten and one") tonodrono thirty ("three ten") nonodronoinono ninety-nine ("nine ten and nine")
Hundred is derono and thousand is dorono. Numbers above one hundred are formed similarly.
deronoiono 101 deronoidonodronoiono 121 ("hundred and two ten and one") donoderono 200 donoderonoitonodronoislono 237 ("two hundred and three ten and seven") konodoronoitonoderonoidonodronoikwono 4325 ("four thousand and three hundred and two ten and five")
The Lorêm System
The borrowed Lorêm system is capable of expressing numbers much larger than the native Vabungula system, and in a much more succinct and pleasing manner. All numbers are formed by combining the basic root numbers:
sêna 1 (one) bêlê 2 (two) ana 3 (three) bana 4 (four) kolo 5 (five) olo 6 (six) sali 7 (seven) asi 8 (eight) deka 9 (nine) resa 10 (ten) uza 100 (hundred) ina 1000 (thousand) ova 1000000 (million) ela 1000000000 (billion; British: milliard)
All other numbers are formed by combining the basic root numbers. Note that all Lorêm numbers are formed by alternating vowels and consonants; there are no consonant or vowel clusters. All resulting compound numbers are also formed as alternating vowels and consonants. This is done by dropping final consonants on roots when the following syllable begins with a consonant.
The numbers 11-19 are formed by prefixing an abbreviation for "ten", re or res, to the numbers 1 through 9:
resêna 11 rebêlê 12 resana 13 rebana 14 rekolo 15 resolo 16 resali 17 resasi 18 redeka 19
Multiples of ten, from twenty through ninety, are formed by prefixing abbreviations for the numbers 1 through 9 onto res, an abbreviation for 10:
bêres 20 ares 30 bares 40 kores 50 ores 60 sares 70 ases 80 deres 90
Numbers from 21 through 99 are formed by dropping the final "s" of the multiple of ten and suffixing the first syllable (consonant-vowel-consonant) of the one's digit, or, if the one's digit begins with a vowel, retaining the final "s" of the multiple of ten, and suffixing the first syllable (vowel-consonant) of the one's digit. Note that all numbers from 21 through 99 end in a consonant, whereas the numbers from 1 through 19 end in a vowel.
bêresên 21 bêrebêl 22 bêresan 23 bêreban 24 bêrekol 25 bêresol 26 bêresal 27 bêresas 28 bêredek 29 aresên 31 aresan 33 korekol 55 koresas 58 sareban 74 asesên 81 asesal 87 asesas 88 deredek 99
Numbers above 99 are all formed by combining the above sequence with variations of uza (root: u(z)) for hundreds, ina (root: i(n)) for thousands, ova (root: o(v)) for millions, and ela (root e(l)) for billions. The roots vary depending on whether they are followed by a vowel or consonant (avoiding vowel or consonant clusters). If the root appears at the end of the word, the full three-letter form is used. Numbers from 100 to 999 are formed as follows:
uza 100 usêna 101 ubêlê 102 uzana 103 ubana 104 ukolo 105 uzolo 106 usali 107 uzasi 108 udeka 109 uresa 110 uresêna 111 ubêres 120 uzares 130 ubares 140 ukores 150 uzores 160 usares 170 uzases 180 bêluza 200 bêlusêna 201 bêlubêlê 202 bêluzana 203 bêlurekolo 215 anuza 300 banuza 400 koluza 500 oluza 600 saluza 700 asuza 800 dekuza 900 dekubêresal 927 dekuzaresan 933 dekuzasesas 988 dekuderedek 999
Numbers from 1000 to 1000000 are formed as follows:
ina 1000 isêna 1001 ibêlê 1002 inana 1003 ideredek 1099 inuza 1100 inusêna 1101 ibêluza 1200 ibêluzareban 1234 inanuza 1300 ibanuza 1400 bêlina 2000 anina 3000 banina 4000 salina 7000 asina 8000 resina 10000 resisêna 10001 resinuza 10100 resinanubarekol 10345 resênina 11000 resêniresêna 11011 rebêlina 12000 resanina 13000 bêresina 20000 bêresanina 23000 saresina 70000 asesina 80000 deredekidekuderedek 99999 uzina 100000 uzinuza 100100 usêninuresa 101110 uresina 110000 bêluzina 200000 anuzina 300000 saluzasesalinasusaresas 787878 dekuderedekidekuderedek 999999
Numbers 1000000 and higher are formed as follows:
ova 1000000 osêna 1000001 ovuzina 1100000 obêluzarebanikoluzoresal 1234567 bêlova 2000000 resova 10000000 resovusêniresa 10101010 barebanova 44000000 ela 1000000000 esêna 1000000001 bêlela 2000000000 olebaresovanubêliresa 5040302010
Lorêm Number Construction
In summary, the construction of a Lorêm number from a given positive integer less than one trillion proceeds as follows:
Example: 1,234,567 001 for millions group 234 for thousands group 567 for units group
Note that leading zeroes within a group are always ignored.
Note that "sên" is never used as a prefix:
100 = "uza" and not "sênuza" 1000 = "ina" and not "sênina" 1000000 = "ova" and not "sênova" 1000000000 = "ela" and not "sênela"
"i" or "in" for thousands "o" or "ov" for millions "e" or "el" for billions
For absolutely explicit details, here is a programmer's Algorithm for Creating Lorêm Numbers.
Examples of Lorêm Numbers
The number of feet in a mile is kolibêluzases.
The number of days in a year is banuzorekol; in a leap year it's banuzoresol.
Light travels at the speed of approximately uzasesolina miles per second.
In the year ibanuderebêl Columbus discovered America.
The Declaration of Independence was signed in the year isalusaresol.
I was born in the year idekubaredek.
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|Page last modified on December 29, 2009|
|Vabungula is an artificial language invented by Bill Price in 1965.|
|Vabungula co nûsk mugola famêlêtke onudž Bill Price larla alara idekuzorekol.|
|Copyright © 1999 by Bill Price|