A Grammar of Vabungula
|Part 4.1 - More about Roots|
A List of Vabungula Roots
This list attempts to cover all the primary roots in Vabungula, while secondary roots (i.e., roots that arise as a combination of primary roots) are kept to a bare minimum. Virtually any word can theoretically become its own root, engendering a series of related words having itself as its primary component. It is therefore not always an easy task to determine what should be classified as a Vabungula root. I have made a rather subjective choice of listing only those secondary roots that seem to have taken on a distinctive identity independent from their parent components. In these cases where a secondary root is listed, the primary root components are given in parentheses.
Note that some roots have multiple and distinct meanings. Roots may appear in full or abbreviated form. Abbreviated forms are listed with the full form given in parentheses.
All possible combinations of consonant + vowel are listed, those not representing a root being marked as (NOT USED).
Roots beginning with a vowel are listed first, followed by those beginning with a consonant.
Consonant roots are grouped by primary vowel.
af = (afado); (afa); (afê) afad(o)= wealth, value afa = repair afê = use ag = (agu) aga = away, remove aga = old agu = speak ak = sudden action al = see ala = general, unspecific alu = nature, natural; familiar alû = (alûn) alûn= measure (al + ûn) am = name an = (ano) ano = passive, yield, allow ar = (are); (arm) are = red ark = difficult arm = hand, arm au = return back av = brown ego = wonder, ponder questioningly eku = attribute (e + ku) en = (ena) ena = want, desire ep = rubbery, elastic es = (kes) esa = leave, depart êm = royal êm = (êms) êms = stripe ic = also; new, child ido = play, game, fun if = combine, mix im = happen is = (islû) islû= breathe oj = (oja) oja = join, together oja = great, glorious oko = only ol = around, round on = whole; one or = thickness uc = sharp pointed growth or object udž = means, way ul = cold um = before, previous uni = plan (um + ni) up = north ur = steep us = filter už = explode ûlg = concept; resolute, determined ûn = piece ba = throw bar = map, chart barg= care, caution ca = iron ca = hide da = cause da = fall da = concerning, about dare= pull darêf= push, knock dwa = earth dža = fixed, secure, stuck fa = do, make fag = machine fja = cover fra = (fram); (fran) fram= grass, hair fran= must, necessary, important fwa = stop ga = male; (gal) gab = seek gac = path, road gal = abnormal, strange, crazy gal = exist gam = sluggish garf= obsolete, extinct, unused garp= unimportant gas = real gla = greet ha = light; dark; (halja) haj = chop or cut grass or weeds halja= death ja = big ka = you; (kak); (kam); (kac) kac = hot, warm kae = color kaf = servant kak = hard, solid kam = thing kar = true kar = eat kar = different kar = satisfy kat = guard, protect, keep kja = sharp kra = yes, affirmative kwa = show, reveal la = towards; at; (lam); (lar) lam = place lar = time ma = (mal); (mas); (maz) mag = happen mal = past tense man = clear, obvious, manifest mas = go maz = foot, leg mna = all na = bad; down nag = bump nag = pain, agony, suffering pa = side; (pak) pak = end pra = (prak) prak= exact ra = (rap) rap = water, liquid sa = have saf = keep saj = across ta = behind, back; (tar) tal = tie, bind tar = gratitude va = on vag = exception vaj = alongside vak = surface vaz = (vazûm) vazûm= empty (va + zûm) wa = (waf) waf = frivolous, careless za = (zal) zal = change into zar = three-dimensional, solid ša = mutual šag = spear ža = (žap) žap = lose (opposite of find) žau = back and forth be = awe bez = magic, sorcery, witchcraft ce = (cep) cel = visit cel = approximate cep = fruit de = he/she/it dem = separate der = answer dre = (dare) fe = (fre); (fel); (fep) fel = poison fep = simple fre = through ge = sound; (gel); (gez) gedo(r) = quiet; (ge + dor) gel = yet, continue gez = move gre = seem he = yellow je = (NOT USED) ke = like, as; (adj. suffix); (kes) kes = substance le = intensive; with me = (meg; mek; men; mer) meg = erode mek = face men = anger mer = wipe ne = compare; (nel); (nea) nea = hill, mountain neg = curious nel = shape pe = part of body re = (rec) rec = green, plant rev = root se = (sek); (sen) sek = wood, tree sen = sex ske = self sle = fat, obese te = fertile; (tev) tev = justice ve = (ver) ver = harvest vre = steal, plunder, violate we = (NOT USED) ze = (zer) zer = same še = (šes) šes = wheat že = (NOT USED) bi = image, picture bwi = (buim) ci = between, inter- di = flower; (dir); (dik) dik = official dinu= politics dir = ruler, leader fi = not fig = metal fri = abdomen, hip, stomach gi = finger; even hi = spicy, hot ji = (NOT USED) ki = (kir) kir = after li = oil mi = sun; white; life mic = pain, hurt ni = mind, think, head pi = thin ri = beauty si = small sri = superior ti = morality, ethics vi = in order to wi = (NOT USED) zi = similar ži = because ši = like, love šit = treble sound bê = (NOT USED) bêl = two bêk = comb bên = room (e.g. in house) cê = (NOT USED) dê = (darêf) dêf = (darêf) drê = (darêf) drêf= (darêf) fê = (NOT USED) fêl = obey gê = (NOT USED) gêm = string, filament; web gêm = work, machine gêm = tired hê = (NOT USED) jê = exist kê = (NOT USED) kêp = (krêp) klê = ask krê = (krêm); (krêp) krêm= grow krêm= permitted krêm= descend, sink krêp= strike, hit lê = (lêk); (lêm) lêk = cut, bite lêm = build, construct mê = (NOT USED) mêf = slow mêk = order, arrangement mên = touch, feel mês = loose; cook mêt = sit, lie nê = (nêm) nêm = weak nêz = shame pê = (pên); (plê) pên = mouth pên = sad plê = be present rê = (rêm), (rênk) rêm = strong rênk= heavy sê = (sêm) sêm = judge srê = sweep tê = that; (tên) tên = direction vê = (vêm) vêk = out of sequence, not matching the rest vêm = fluff, foam wê = (NOT USED) zê = (NOT USED) šê = (NOT USED) žê = (NOT USED) bo = clean co = namely, that is do = good; up; (don) dog = (dogas) dogas= effective, efficient, skilled; (do + gas) don = two dor = peace dro = (dron) dron= ten flo = guest, hospitality fo = rectum go = right (opp. of left); (gol); (gor); (gro) gol = serious gor = dangerous gro = out ho = moon; (hon) hon = eight hodž= box, cube jo = long (cf. nof) ko = fly (travel through air); fly (small flying insect); (= kam); (kon) kodž= square kon = four kor = ball kwon= five lo = first, begin, origin; (lom); (lor) lom = south lor = open mo = (mol; mom) mok = container mol = opposite mom = center, middle no = toe; (nos); (nom); (non); (nor) nof = length (cf. jo) nok = knob nom = humble non = nine nor = inferior nos = animal not = kind, variety po = female ro = music so = I, self sod = soft (opp. of loud) son = six slo = room, space; (slon) slon= seven to = (ton); (tom) todž= triangle tom = humor ton = three tor = slope vo = front wo = (NOT USED) zo = number šo = nose, smell šo = like, pleasing šo = (šot) šot = meet žo = (NOT USED) bu = if, might, conditional buim= chance (bu + im) blu = leaf cu = subjunctive du = (duf); (dum); (dun) duf = island dum = embarrassed dun = clever džu = take, receive; put, place fu = air; sudden; not (fwi) fwi = not gu = (agu) glu = tell; prove gnu = until hu = celestial ju = according to ku = mark lu = health mu = (muc); (muh); (mug); (mul) muc = cause; result mug = word, language muh = blue; sky mul = become; future tense mur = jewel, money nu = vain pu = (pum); (pun) pum = smooth pun = condition, state plu = oblique, slanted, diagonal ru = emotion su = (sum); of, pertaining to; from sum = person, human sku = rest, relax tu = this; (tul) tul = sympathy vu = aware, alert wu = (NOT USED) zu = (zur) zur = dizzy, giddy šu = (šuv) šuv = step, stage žu = deep; reptile; shake, tremble bû = (NOT USED) cû = (NOT USED) dû = (dûl) dûl = normal dûm = pride džû = give fû = (fûm); (fûn) fûm = dry fûn = now; sudden gû = (glû) gûv = disgust, nausea glû = fear hû = (hûm) hûm = bass sound, rumble jû = (NOT USED) kû = (kûl); (kûs); (krû) kûl = military kûl = bundle, group kûs = shut, close krû = flat, low lû = (lûg); (lûm) lûg = catch lûm = win, conquer lûn = (alûn) mû = (mûd); (mûl) mûd = soul, spirit mûl = belief system, -ism nû = (nûs) nûg = rough, scratch nûs = imaginary, not real pû = (NOT USED) rû = (NOT USED) sû = left (opp. of right) tû = (NOT USED) vû = (vûs) vûs = cloth, textile wû = (NOT USED) zû = thorn, stinger; buzz zûm = hole zûn = branch, tributary šû = (NOT USED) žû = (NOT USED) by = (NOT USED) cy = (NOT USED) dy = (NOT USED) fy = (NOT USED) gy = (NOT USED) hy = (NOT USED) jy = (NOT USED) ky = (NOT USED) ly = (NOT USED) lyf = silver my = (NOT USED) ny = (nym); (nys) nym = presume, think nys = shallow py = (NOT USED) ry = (NOT USED) sy = (syf) syf = light (weight) ty = (tym) tym = guess vy = (vym) vym = tobacco wy = (NOT USED) zy = (NOT USED) šy = (NOT USED) žy = (NOT USED)
Some roots are "overloaded", i.e., they have more than one meaning. Some examples:
1. kar has four distinct meanings: different, eat, truth, and satisfy. Examples:
KAR ====== different: kar ====== different karala === difference ekaril === variation karela === other karesum == race (of people); (sum = person) famêkar == change; (famêlêt = make, do) fanakare = betray icekarel = novelty; (icera = new) nekarle == distinguish between; (ne = compare) karmas === turn; (masa = go) KAR ====== truth: karalan == true karalal == truth karalon == correct afakar === correct a mistake; (afa = fix, correct) agukar === tell the truth; (agula = speak) karalana = it is true legukar == oath; (le = intense; gu = speak) karanil == logic; (ni = mind, think) nikarani = deduce; (ni = mind, think) KAR ======= eat: dokar ===== delicious; (do = good) dokari ==== sweet; (do = good) karal ===== eat karas ===== food misakaras = breakfast; (mislarêm = morning) džukaras == feed; (džu- = corruption of džû- from džûmba = give) ekarflam == dishes (for eating meals); (flamao = plate) enkarke === hungry; (enad = want) sikaras === snack; (sikili = small) KAR = satisfy: dakaron === satisfy; (da = cause; -on = complete) karno ===== satisfactory karnodžu == accept; (džumba = take) karnofa === be pleased karnozeni = approve; (zeni = agree) karona ==== be satisfied with fakarno === approve gnukar ==== to one's heart's content; (gnu = until)
2) kûl has two distinct meanings: group, bundle, and war. Examples:
KÛL = war kûlana ===== war kûlsum ===== army; (sum = person) fukûlsum === air force; (fu = air) kûlsusum === soldier dikûlsum === officer (military); (dikar = official) jalakûl ==== sergeant; (jana = big) kûlprak ==== attack; (prak = exact, precise) kûlmas ===== invade; (masa = go) kûla ======= fight kûlaze ===== wrestle kûlido ===== competition; (do = good) kûmofa ===== revolt; (mol = against, opposite) kûposo ===== defend; (p(r)o = for; so = I) dirakûlmûl = fascism; (dira = ruler; mûl = "-ism") okûlake ==== aggressive KÛL = group, bundle: kûl ======== group, pile, bunch, bundle kûlo ======= bundle miukûl ===== snowdrift; (miulorap = snow) mišeskûl === loaf of bread; (mišeska = bread) sisekûlo === book; (siseka = paper) nivêmkûl === pillow; (ni = head, vêm = fluff) sumkûl ===== crowd; (sum = people) noskûl ===== herd, group of animals;(no(s) ===== animal) sikagêmkûl = brush; (si = small, ka(k) = hard, gê(m) = hair, filament) armokûl ==== fist; (armon = hand) ekûl ======= set (abstract) jamuhakûl == galaxy; (ja = large; muhasil = star) jansafkûl == luggage; (jan = large; saf = keep) karikûl ==== cake; (kari = sweet) karsikûl === ear of grain; (kar = food; si = small)
3) krêm has three distinct meanings: grow, descend, and be permitted. Sharing the abbreviated root krê is krêp meaning strike. Examples:
krêman ===== increase (intr.) fakrêman === increase (tr.) fakrêmale == magnify (alega = see) jarakrêm === (ocean) tide (jaralam = sea, ocean) krêmago ==== bulge (gro = out) mikrêman === grow (misa = live, alive) zokrêmle === multiply (zo = number, le = intensive) krêmê ====== descend, settle rakrême ==== sink (in water) fakrêmê ==== lower down (tr.) krêm ======= may, be permitted krêmfasek == license (falê = to do; sek = paper) arcikrê ==== clap hands (armon = hand, ci = between) fifakrêpak = electric shock (fifa = electricity, -ak = sudden) krêdage ==== crash (da = fall, ge = sound) krêfamu ==== type with a typewriter (famu = write) krêgekamo == bell (ge = sound, kamo = thing) krêkam ===== hammer krêpagêm === whip (gêm = string, rope) krêšola ==== collide (šo = meet) kûkrêp ===== slap (kû = flat) sokrêpka === target (sokalap = destination, ka = thing)
Notes on the Root "HA"
One of the most curiously contradictory roots in Vabungula is ha. This root has two different and completely opposite meanings: light and dark. The word for light is ha, and as such claims the first right to the root ha. Some examples: hake (bright), hafam (shine), fumuha (lightning), hadûn (beam of light), hakac (fire), haliva (candle), kohasil (firefly), muhasil (star), mihado (sun). The opposite meaning of dark has encroached upon the root ha in a rather roundabout manner. The word for white is misado, being a combination of misa (life) and do (good). Similarly, the word for black is haljana, formed by a combination of halja (dead) and na (bad). By adding the nominal suffix -l to haljana we obtain haljanal which means darkness. (The adjective dark is haljanake). The primary root is thus hal(ja), meaning death, black, or dark, which can then appear in the abbreviated form ha, curiously coinciding with the aforementioned root of opposite meaning. A few examples of words with this abbreviated root are: halarêm = night (lit. black day); hadedi = black-eyed susan (lit. black-yellow-flower); hagekos = crow (lit. black-loud-bird); hagidir = black raspberry; hamasi = ant (lit. black-walk-insect); mihafikae = black-and-white; mihanaš = skunk (lit. white-black-stink); mihav = gray (lit. white-black-brown).
Grammar of Vabungula | Alphabet | Nouns | Pronouns | Adjectives | Prepositions | Conjunctions | Verbs | Interrogatives | Word Order | Word Formation | Roots | Prefixes and Suffixes | Miscellaneous | Numbers | Lorêm Number Algorithm | Word Studies | Miscellaneous Discussions | Basic Vocabulary | DICTIONARY | English Index | Example Sentences | Vabungula in Cyrillic | Gospel of Matthew | Gospel of Mark | Gospel of Luke | Gospel of John | Book of Romans | Book of Revelation | Babel Text | Story of Peter Rabbit | Grammar Notes | Vocabulary | Three Little Pigs | Vocabulary | Jack and the Beanstalk | Three Bears | Old Woman and Pig | Frog Prince | Poppy Seed Cakes | Jolly Tailor | Little Prince | Boris Sergunenkov | Relativity | Essay | Jokes | Vabungula Main Page | Languages | Bill Price Home Page
|Page last modified on March 8, 2017|
|Vabungula is an artificial language invented by Bill Price in 1965.|
|Vabungula co nûsk mugola famêlêtke onudž Bill Price larla alara idekuzorekol.|
|Copyright © 1999-2008 by Bill Price|