Vabungula


A Grammar of Vabungula

Part 4.1 - More about Roots


A List of Vabungula Roots

This list attempts to cover all the primary roots in Vabungula, while secondary roots (i.e., roots that arise as a combination of primary roots) are kept to a bare minimum. Virtually any word can theoretically become its own root, engendering a series of related words having itself as its primary component. It is therefore not always an easy task to determine what should be classified as a Vabungula root. I have made a rather subjective choice of listing only those secondary roots that seem to have taken on a distinctive identity independent from their parent components. In these cases where a secondary root is listed, the primary root components are given in parentheses.

Note that some roots have multiple and distinct meanings. Roots may appear in full or abbreviated form. Abbreviated forms are listed with the full form given in parentheses.

All possible combinations of consonant + vowel are listed, those not representing a root being marked as (NOT USED).

Roots beginning with a vowel are listed first, followed by those beginning with a consonant.

Consonant roots are grouped by primary vowel.

af  = (afado); (afa); (afê)
afad(o)= wealth, value
afa = repair
afê = use
ag  = (agu)
aga = away, remove
aga = old
agu = speak
ak  = sudden action
al  = see
ala = general, unspecific
alu = nature, natural; familiar
alû = (alûn)
alûn= measure (al + ûn)
am  = name
an  = (ano)
ano = passive, yield, allow
ar  = (are); (arm)
are = red
ark = difficult
arm = hand, arm
au  = return back
av  = brown
ego = wonder, ponder questioningly
eku = attribute (e + ku)
en  = (ena)
ena = want, desire
ep  = rubbery, elastic
es  = (kes)
esa = leave, depart
êm  = royal
êm  = (êms)
êms = stripe
ic  = also; new, child
if  = combine, mix
im  = happen
is  = (islû)
islû= breathe
oj  = (oja)
oja = join, together
oja = great, glorious
oko = only
ol  = around, round
on  = whole; one
or  = thickness
uc  = sharp pointed growth or object
udž = means, way
ul  = cold
um  = before, previous
uni = plan (um + ni)
up  = north
ur  = steep
us  = filter
  = explode
ûlg = concept; resolute, determined
ûn  = piece
ba  = throw
bar = map, chart
barg= care, caution
ca  = iron
ca  = hide
da  = cause
da  = fall
da  = concerning, about
dare= pull
darêf= push, knock
dwa = earth
dža = fixed, secure, stuck
fa  = do, make
fag = machine
fja = cover
fra = (fram); (fran)
fram= grass, hair
fran= must, necessary, important
fwa = stop
ga  = male; (gal)
gab = seek
gac = path, road
gal = abnormal, strange, crazy
gal = exist
gam = sluggish
garf= obsolete, extinct, unused
garp= unimportant
gas = real
gla = greet
ha  = light; dark; (halja)
haj = chop or cut grass or weeds
halja= death
ja  = big
ka  = you; (kak); (kam); (kac)
kac = hot, warm
kae = color
kaf = servant
kak = hard, solid
kam = thing
kar = true
kar = eat
kar = different
kar = satisfy
kat = guard, protect, keep
kja = sharp
kra = yes, affirmative
kwa = show, reveal
la  = towards; at; (lam); (lar)
lam = place
lar = time
ma  = (mal); (mas); (maz)
mag = happen
mal = past tense
mas = go
maz = foot, leg
mna = all
na  = bad; down
nag = bump
nag = pain, agony, suffering
pa  = side; (pak)
pak = end
pra = (prak)
prak= exact
ra  = (rap)
rap = water, liquid
sa  = have
saf = keep
saj = across
ta  = behind, back; (tar)
tal = tie
tar = gratitude
va  = on
vag = exception 
vaj = alongside
vak = surface
vaz = (vazûm)
vazûm= empty (va + zûm)
wa  = (waf)
waf = frivolous, careless
za  = (zal)
zal = change into
zar = three-dimensional, solid
ša  = mutual
šag = spear
ža  = (žap)
žap = lose (opposite of find)
žau = back and forth
be  = awe 
bez = magic, sorcery, witchcraft
ce  = (cep)
cel = visit
cel = approximate
cep = fruit
de  = he/she/it
dem = separate
der = answer
dre = (dare)
fe  = (fre); (fel); (fep)
fel = poison
fep = simple
fre = through
ge  = sound; (gel); (gez)
gedo(r) = quiet; (ge + dor)
gel = yet, continue
gez = move
gre = seem
he  = yellow
je  = (NOT USED)
ke  = like, as; (adj. suffix); (kes)
kes = substance
le  = intensive; with
me  = (meg; mek; men; mer)
meg = erode
mek = face
men = anger
mer = wipe
ne  = compare; (nel); (nea)
nea = hill, mountain
neg = curious
nel = shape
pe  = part of body
re  = (rec)
rec = green, plant
rev = root
se  = (sek); (sen)
sek = wood, tree
sen = sex
ske = self
sle = fat, obese
te  = fertile; (tev)
tev = justice
ve  = (ver)
ver = harvest
vre = steal, plunder, violate
we  = (NOT USED)
ze  = (zer)
zer = same
še  = (še)
šes = wheat
že  = (NOT USED)
bi  = image, picture
bwi = (buim)
ci  = between, inter-
di  = flower; (dir); (dik)
dik = official
dinu= politics
dir = ruler, leader
fi  = not
fig = metal
fri = abdomen, hip, stomach
gi  = finger; even 
hi  = spicy, hot
ji  = (NOT USED)
ki  = (kir)
kir = after
li  = oil
mi  = sun; white; life
mic = pain, hurt
ni  = mind, think, head
pi  = thin
ri  = beauty
si  = small
sri = superior
ti  = morality, ethics
vi  = in order to
wi  = (NOT USED)
zi  = similar
ži  = because
ši  = like, love
šit = treble sound
  = (NOT USED)
bêl = two
bêk = comb
bên = room (e.g. in house)
  = (NOT USED)
  = (darêf)
dêf = (darêf)
drê = (darêf)
drêf= (darêf)
  = (NOT USED)
fêl = obey
  = (NOT USED)
gêm = string, filament
gêm = tired
  = (NOT USED)
  = exist
  = (NOT USED)
kêp = (krêp)
klê = ask
krê = (krêm); (krêp)
krêm= grow
krêm= permitted
krêm= descend, sink
krêp= strike, hit
  = (lêk); (lêm)
lêk = cut, bite
lêm = build, construct
  = (NOT USED)
mêf = slow
mêk = order, arrangement
mên = touch, feel
mês = loose; cook
mêt = sit, lie
  = (nêm)
nêm = weak
nêz = shame
  = (pên); (plê)
pên = mouth
pên = sad
plê = be present
  = (rêm), (rênk)
rêm = strong
rênk= heavy
  = (sêm)
sêm = judge
srê = sweep
  = that; (tên)
tên = direction
  = (vêm)
vêk = out of sequence, not matching the rest
vêm = fluff, foam
  = (NOT USED)
  = (NOT USED)
šê  = (NOT USED)
žê  = (NOT USED)
bo  = clean
co  = namely, that is
do  = good; up; (don)
dog = (dogas)
dogas= effective, efficient, skilled; (do + gas)
don = two 
dor = peace
dro = (dron)
dron= ten
fo  = rectum
go  = right (opp. of left); (gol); (gor); (gro)
gol = serious
gor = dangerous
gro = out
ho  = moon; (hon)
hon = eight
hodž= box, cube
jo  = long (cf. nof)
ko  = fly (travel through air); fly (small flying insect); 
         (= kam); (kon)
kodž= square
kon = four
kor = ball
kwon= five
lo  = first, begin, origin; (lom); (lor)
lom = south
lor = open
mo  = (mol; mom)
mok = container
mol = opposite
mom = center, middle
no  = toe; (nos); (nom); (non); (nor)
nof = length (cf. jo)
nok = knob
nom = humble
non = nine
nor = inferior
nos = animal
not = kind, variety
po  = female
ro  = music
so  = I, self
sod = soft (opp. of loud)
son = six
slo = room, space; (slon)
slon= seven
to  = (ton); (tom)
todž= triangle
tom = humor
ton = three
tor = slope
vo  = front
wo  = (NOT USED)
zo  = number
šo  = nose, smell
šo  = like, pleasing
šo  = (šot)
šot = meet
žo  = (NOT USED)
bu  = if, might, conditional
buim= chance (bu + im)
blu = leaf
cu  = subjunctive
du  = (duf); (dum); (dun)
duf = island
dum = embarrassed
dun = clever
džu = take, receive; put, place
fu  = air; sudden; not (fwi)
fwi = not 
gu  = (agu)
glu = tell; prove
gnu = until
hu  = celestial
ju  = according to
ku  = mark
lu  = health
mu  = (muc); (muh); (mug); (mul)
muc = cause; result
mug = word, language
muh = blue; sky
mul = become; future tense
mur = jewel, money
nu  = vain
pu  = (pum); (pun)
pum = smooth
pun = condition, state
plu = oblique, slanted, diagonal
ru  = emotion
su  = (sum); of, pertaining to; from
sku = rest, relax
tu  = this; (tul)
tul = sympathy
vu  = aware, alert
wu  = (NOT USED)
zu  = (zur)
zur = dizzy, giddy 
šu  = (šuv)
šuv = step, stage
žu  = deep; reptile; shake, tremble
  = (NOT USED)
  = (NOT USED)
  = (dûl)
dûl = normal
dûm = pride
džû = give
  = (fûm); (fûn)
fûm = dry
fûn = now; sudden
  = (glû)
gûv = disgust, nausea
glû = fear
  = (hûm)
hûm = bass sound, rumble
  = (NOT USED)
  = (kûl); (kûs); (krû)
kûl = military
kûl = bundle, group
kûs = shut, close
krû = flat, low
  = (lûg); (lûm)
lûg = catch
lûm = win, conquer
lûn = (alûn)
  = (mûd); (mûl)
mûd = soul, spirit
mûl = belief system, -ism
  = (nûs)
nûg = rough, scratch
nûs = imaginary, not real
  = (NOT USED)
  = (NOT USED)
  = left (opp. of right)
  = (NOT USED)
  = (vûs)
vûs = cloth, textile
  = (NOT USED)
  = thorn, stinger; buzz
zûm = hole
zûn = branch, tributary
šû  = (NOT USED)
žû  = (NOT USED)
by  = (NOT USED)
cy  = (NOT USED)
dy  = (NOT USED)
fy  = (NOT USED)
gy  = (NOT USED)
hy  = (NOT USED)
jy  = (NOT USED)
ky  = (NOT USED)
ly  = (NOT USED) 
lyf = silver
my  = (NOT USED)
ny  = (nym); (nys)
nym = presume, think
nys = shallow
py  = (NOT USED)
ry  = (NOT USED)
sy  = (syf)
syf = light (weight)
ty  = (tym)
tym = guess
vy  = (vym)
vym = tobacco
wy  = (NOT USED)
zy  = (NOT USED)
šy  = (NOT USED)
žy  = (NOT USED)

Overloaded Roots

Some roots are "overloaded", i.e., they have more than one meaning. Some examples:

1. kar has four distinct meanings: different, eat, truth, and satisfy. Examples:

KAR ====== different:

kar ====== different
karala === difference
ekaril === variation
karela === other
karesum == race (of people); (sum = person)
famêkar == change; (famêlêt = make, do)
fanakare = betray 
icekarel = novelty; (icera = new)
nekarle == distinguish between; (ne = compare)
karmas === turn; (masa = go)

KAR ====== truth:

karalan == true
karalal == truth
karalon == correct
afakar === correct a mistake; (afa = fix, correct)
agukar === tell the truth; (agula = speak)
karalana = it is true
legukar == oath; (le = intense; gu = speak)
karanil == logic; (ni = mind, think)
nikarani = deduce; (ni = mind, think)

KAR ======= eat:

dokar ===== delicious; (do = good)
dokari ==== sweet; (do = good)
karal ===== eat
karas ===== food
misakaras = breakfast; (mislarêm = morning)
džukaras == feed; (džu- = corruption of džû-
                           from džûmba = give)
ekarflam == dishes (for eating meals); (flamao = plate)
enkarke === hungry; (enad = want)
sikaras === snack; (sikili = small)

KAR = satisfy:

dakaron === satisfy; (da = cause; -on = complete)
karno ===== satisfactory
karnodžu == accept; (džumba = take)
karnofa === be pleased
karnozeni = approve; (zeni = agree)
karona ==== be satisfied with
fakarno === approve
gnukar ==== to one's heart's content; (gnu = until)

2) kûl has two distinct meanings: group, bundle, and war. Examples:

KÛL = war

kûlana ===== war 
kûlsum ===== army; (sum = person) 
fukûlsum === air force; (fu = air) 
kûlsusum === soldier 
dikûlsum === officer (military); (dikar = official) 
jalakûl ==== sergeant; (jana = big) 
kûlprak ==== attack; (prak = exact, precise) 
kûlmas ===== invade; (masa = go) 
kûla ======= fight 
kûlaze ===== wrestle 
kûlido ===== competition; (do = good) 
kûmofa ===== revolt; (mol = against, opposite) 
kûposo ===== defend; (p(r)o = for; so = I) 
dirakûlmûl = fascism; (dira = ruler; mûl = "-ism") 
okûlake ==== aggressive 

KÛL = group, bundle: 

kûl ======== group, pile, bunch, bundle 
kûlo ======= bundle 
miukûl ===== snowdrift; (miulorap = snow) 
mišeskûl === loaf of bread; (mišeska = bread) 
sisekûlo === book; (siseka = paper) 
nivêmkûl === pillow; (ni = head, vêm = fluff) 
sumkûl ===== crowd; (sum = people) 
noskûl ===== herd, group of animals;(no(s) ===== animal) 
sikagêmkûl = brush; (si = small, ka(k) = hard, 
               gê(m) = hair, filament)
armokûl ==== fist; (armon = hand) 
ekûl ======= set (abstract) 
jamuhakûl == galaxy; (ja = large; muhasil = star) 
jansafkûl == luggage; (jan = large; saf = keep) 
karikûl ==== cake; (kari = sweet) 
karsikûl === ear of grain; (kar = food; si = small)

3) krêm has three distinct meanings: grow, descend, and be permitted. Sharing the abbreviated root krê is krêp meaning strike. Examples:

krêman ===== increase (intr.) 
fakrêman === increase (tr.) 
fakrêmale == magnify (alega = see) 
jarakrêm === (ocean) tide (jaralam = sea, ocean) 
krêmago ==== bulge (gro = out)
mikrêman === grow (misa = live, alive) 
zokrêmle === multiply (zo = number, le = intensive)

krêmê ====== descend, settle
rakrême ==== sink (in water) 
fakrêmê ==== lower down (tr.) 

krêm ======= may, be permitted 
krêmfasek == license (falê = to do; sek = paper)

arcikrê ==== clap hands (armon = hand, ci = between) 
fifakrêpak = electric shock (fifa = electricity, -ak = sudden) 
krêdage ==== crash (da = fall, ge = sound) 
krêfamu ==== type with a typewriter (famu = write) 
krêgekamo == bell (ge = sound, kamo = thing) 
krêkam ===== hammer
krêpagêm === whip (gêm = string, rope) 
krêšola ==== collide (šo = meet) 
kûkrêp ===== slap ( = flat) 
sokrêpka === target (sokalap = destination, ka = thing)

Notes on the Root "HA"

One of the most curiously contradictory roots in Vabungula is ha. This root has two different and completely opposite meanings: light and dark. The word for light is ha, and as such claims the first right to the root ha. Some examples: hake (bright), hafam (shine), fumuha (lightning), hadûn (beam of light), hakac (fire), haliva (candle), kohasil (firefly), muhasil (star), mihado (sun). The opposite meaning of dark has encroached upon the root ha in a rather roundabout manner. The word for white is misado, being a combination of misa (life) and do (good). Similarly, the word for black is haljana, formed by a combination of halja (dead) and na (bad). By adding the nominal suffix -l to haljana we obtain haljanal which means darkness. (The adjective dark is haljanake). The primary root is thus hal(ja), meaning death, black, or dark, which can then appear in the abbreviated form ha, curiously coinciding with the aforementioned root of opposite meaning. A few examples of words with this abbreviated root are: halarêm = night (lit. black day); hadedi = black-eyed susan (lit. black-yellow-flower); hagekos = crow (lit. black-loud-bird); hagidir = black raspberry; hamasi = ant (lit. black-walk-insect); mihafikae = black-and-white; mihanaš = skunk (lit. white-black-stink); mihav = gray (lit. white-black-brown).


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Page last modified on March 8, 2017
Vabungula is an artificial language invented by Bill Price in 1965.
Vabungula co nûsk mugola famêlêtke onudž Bill Price larla alara idekuzorekol.
Copyright © 1999-2008 by Bill Price
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