A Grammar of Vabungula
|Part 4.2 - Prefixes and Suffixes|
In many cases it is not easy to classify a Vabungula root as exclusively a prefix or a
suffix, since many roots can be used as both. However, there are certain roots that
function primarily or even exclusively as prefixes or suffixes. Here are some of the most
do - good, holy; up na - bad, evil; down da - cause; -able fa - do (note: sometimes the difference between da- and fa- becomes blurred) e - abstract (as opposed to concrete) ên - abstract, usually relating to social concepts fida - un---able le - intensive on - whole, entire fi/fwi - not, un- si - small ja - large ci - between, inter- ke - similar to, quasi la - at; towards mu(l) - become sa - having su - (in adjectives made from transitive verbs: tending to receive the action of ...) tu - this tê - that va - on vo - before ta - behind ze - same za - change into džu - give; (transitive) džû - take; (intransitive) o - various abstract applications, such as: forming relatives from interrogatives: kam? = what? okam = what, that lam? = where? olam = where various function words: oda = regarding odapro = as far as ... is concerned ogabu = at all ogas = in fact, as a matter of fact (from gas = real) okenim = on the one hand oni = don't you know one = in comparison making temporal adverbs from nouns: olarêm = one day (from larêm = day) ohalarêm = one evening (from halarêm = evening) omislarêm = one morning (from mislarêm = morning) interjections: oglûno = wow! (from glûno = surprise) oklêd = please! (from klêdeg = ask for) onamag = oh dear! (from namagûs = problem) onapê = excuse me! (from napêgu = apologize) impersonal verbal prefix: ogula = it is said, they say (from agula = say, speak) ofalê = it is done, they do (from falê = do)
Notes on prefixes:
1) The prefix e can appear as en when preceding a root beginning with a vowel:
enûn (instead of eûn, root = ûn) "aspect". Root ûn = "part".
2) The prefix ên appears in a corrupted form en in the following words:
endimêk (instead of êndimêk) "rule, regulation." endiragul (instead of êndiragul) "law". endirafamul (instead of êndirafamul) "constitution". endisimu (instead of êndisimu) "restrict, curtail".
3) džu- and džû-:
The basic meaning for džu- is "to take" and džû- "to give", derived from the words džumba (take) and džûmba (give) respectively. The word džula ("to put"), however, uses a corrupted version of the root džû-. Thus the prefix džu- in many cases has the meaning of "putting" or "placing", a concept which is far removed from "taking". In the case of the word pair džudot (hang) and džûdot (hang), the only difference is that the former is transitive, i.e., requires a direct object, whereas the latter is intransitive. Thus after you džudot your coat in the closet, it džûdot's there until you fetch it again. Džû- in this case functions as an intransitive counterpart to the transitive verb formed by džu-. In other words, the džû- in džûdot has nothing to do with the word džûmba (to take), but rather was formed as a counterpart to contrast with the džu- in džudot, which in turn is a corruption of the prefix džû-. This apparent contradiction leads to what can seem to be a rather haphazard use of the prefixes džu- and džû-.
(a)l - general nominal suffix kûlûnal = resistance (kûlûn = resist) negosal = curiosity (negosa = be curious) a/s/as - general verbal suffix menaka = be angry (menak = anger) glûnos = be surprised at (glûno = surprise) flogas = invite (flogal = invitation) ke - adjectival suffix menake = angry (menak = anger) bolake = clean (bola = clean (verb)) - passive suffix for verbs falêke = done (falê = do) agulake = said (agula = speak, say) se - participle suffix ("who is --ing", or "who ---s") agulase = who is speaking (agula = speak) falêse = who is doing (falê = do) te - adverbial participle suffix ("-ing") masate = going (masa = go) komate = flying (koma = fly) (a)n - gerund suffix nifan = thinking (noun) (nifa = think) fagêmlên = working (noun) (fagêmlê = work) jêl - nominative suffix (for adjectives) afadejêl = a rich person, a rich one (afade = rich (adj.)) nêmajêl = a weak person, a weak one (nêma = weak (adj.)) kel - nominative suffix (for passives of transitive verbs) fisankel = an excluded person, an excluded one (fisan = exclude) džûdonikel = an honored person, an honored one (džûdoni = honor) sum - person mêkacfusum = baker (mêkacfu = bake) edobisum = artist (edobi = art) nidž - a branch of science zonidž = mathematics (zo = number) nelûnzonidž = geometry (nelon = shape, ûnda = part, zo = number) akamenidž = chemistry (akamel = chemical) dwajênidž = geology (dwajên = earth) kaminidž = physics (kamo = thing, imag = event) muhasinidž = astronomy (muhasil = star) leg - any kind of hard substance or object kakleg = stone (kak = hard) pênleg = tooth (pêntês = mouth) cepleg = nut (cepi = fruit) suleg = bone (sum = human) figaleg = metal (figas = artificial) tuwaleg = ivory (tuwadže = elephant) uc - sharp pointed objects, such as claws, fangs, horns, hooks arguc = claw (armon = hand) njuc = horn (nimoka = head) oluc = hook (olkalûn = crescent) ic - new; child famêlic = invent (famêlêt = make) sumic = child (sum = person) (m)ic - pain nagmic = hurt pênlegmic = toothache (pênleg = tooth) pumic = ache (pumalê = smooth) ak - sudden action fûgezak = jerk (fû = sudden, gezama = move) fûmislak = gasp (fû = sudden, islûn = breathe) sajdak = hesitate (sajdo = remain) on - whole sumon = body (sum = person) falon = assemble (falê = do) haljon = destroy (halja = kill) lar - time kaclar = summer (kace = hot) kiralar = future (kira = after) lam - place murafalam = bank (murafa = money) sekarlam = forest (sekara = tree) žau - back and forth motion fagežau = wag (fagežu = shake) fûmažau = jump up and down (fûmado = jump) nok - rounded knob-like shape or object neagonok = knoll (neago = hill) mazanok = knee (mazaka = leg) talnok = knot (talac = tie) pe - body part vope = chest (vo = front) surape = heart (sumirap = blood) lapê - completion of action famulapê = finish up writing (famu = write) hamekalapê = burn all up (hameka = burn) kamo/kam/ka/ko - thing, object komakamo = airplane (koma = fly) džulakamo = table (džula = put) dwademaka = shovel (dwadema = dig) hamêsko = stove (hamês = cook) mok - container, vessel, box daramok = pitcher (dara = pour) skematamok = trunk (car) (skemaska = car, ta = behind) vûs - cloth, clothing aldovûs = curtain (aldozûm = window) armovûs = handkerchief (armon = hand) mûl - "-ism" sumidirmûl = democracy (sumi = people, dira = leader) lasusalmûl = communism (lasunig = public, sal = possession)
Notes on suffixes:
1) The stress generally falls on the last syllable for nouns formed by the nominal suffix -(a)l, although there are many exceptions.
2) A small number of nouns have the rare nominal suffix -a (or -la). The main ones are:
karala ("difference", from kar = "different") dala ("fall", from "da" = "to fall") džûsafa ("hold", from "džûsaf" = "to hold, grasp") lonoêma ("beginning", from "lonoêem" = "to begin") famima ("dream", from "famim" = "to dream") franka ("importance", from "frankale" = "important") jasilara ("while", from "jasilar" = "a while") kêmdwašila ("patriot, nationalist", from "kêmdwaši" = "patriotic, nationalistic")
There are other nouns that end in a (or other vowels), but the a in these cases is part of another root and does not represent the nominal suffix a.
3) The suffixes in the word pair karas/karal is in direct contradiction to the general rule: karas is the noun ("food"), and karal is the verb ("eat").
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|Page last modified on November 30, 2009|
|Vabungula is an artificial language invented by Bill Price in 1965.|
|Vabungula co nûsk mugola famêlêtke onudž Bill Price larla alara idekuzorekol.|
|Copyright © 1999 by Bill Price|